- Doctor of Philosophy. 1993. Agricultural Economics from Purdue University with marketing course work at the Krannert School of Management, Purdue University, and at the Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University. Emphasis in Food Marketing, Business Marketing, Price Analysis, and Agribusiness Marketing Strategy.
- Master of Arts. 1986. Economics from Stanford University. Emphasis in Economic History, Econometrics, and Macroeconomic Theory.
- Summer Fellow. American Institute for Economic Research, Great Barrington, MA. Research in Monetary Theory and Economic Methodology. Attendance: June 1985 to August 1985.
- Master of Science. 1985. Agricultural and Applied Economics from the University of Minnesota. Emphasis in Consumer Economics, Statistics, and Macroeconomic Theory.
- Bachelor of Science. 1981. Agricultural and Applied Economics from the University of Minnesota.