Most military commentators before February 24, 2022 predicted that a Russian invasion of Ukraine would result in the rapid fall of Kyiv and other major cities, with Ukrainian resistance taking the form of guerrilla warfare. Instead, Russian forces are mired in what increasingly looks like a losing conventional war in Ukraine, leading to not-so-veiled threats of using nuclear weapons. Why did the Russian army fail to achieve its goals? Is it Ukrainian brilliance, Russian incompetence, or some combination of both? In this presentation, Political Science Professor Michael Engelhardt will explore some unappreciated factors in the military outcome so far, focusing on the continued importance of numerous and well-trained infantry even on today’s high-tech battlefields.