Lab Alumni


Carina Hansen was a member of the lab for 7 semesters from 2018 to 2021. During that time, she was involved in a project on forgiveness as well as a variety of projects looking at BMI in children. Carina collaborated with a Dr. Toussaint, Head Start, NE Iowa’s Food and Fitness Initiative (FFI), and doctors from mayo clinic to look at FFI’s impact on BMI in children at Head Start from 2012-2019. Additionally, this collaboration looked at how BMI was impacting preschoolers’ cognitive development. Her advice to future students, even if they are unsure what they want to do is: “Dr. Toussaint has a variety of projects in different topics going all the time. If you are unsure what area you want to have a career in, this can be a wonderful opportunity for you to explore different topics while learning valuable skills. The experience I had learning to collect, analyze and present data allowed me to stand out in the process of applying to medical schools, and was a key point of conversation during interviews. This a unique opportunity as an undergraduate to be so heavily involved with a research project from start to finish, and it would be a mistake not to take it.” Carina is now pursuing a medical degree at Des Moines University and plans to become a psychiatrist.


Anila Bano worked in professor Toussaint's lab for two years. She helped with a couple of research projects, including forgiveness, meaning in life and adverse childhood experiences (catalyze project). Anila enjoyed taking lead on learning NVIVO - a tool for coding qualitative data. She also coordinated the meaningful world project with younger lab members. Working in the Toussaint research lab was a unique experience for Anila at Luther. She says: “it was neither a work-study, nor an activity to fulfill a course work. It was not an extracurricular activity either”. She rather considers it a golden opportunity to not only apply the knowledge from classes but also for developing skills essential for the future. For students at Luther (especially those interested in psychology/data science/research in general), Anila highly recommends joining Dr. Toussaint’s lab. “It’s a friendly and informal space to develop formal skills like making a poster, giving presentations, researching and team collaboration - an experience like no other”, says Anila. Moreover, Anila liked the fact that Toussaint’s lab was diverse and that an intentional environment was created where diversity was not only accepted but appreciated. Being an international student herself, Anila really enjoyed working with Dr. Toussaint and other team members. She wishes the best for the lab and hopes that the great work continues. As a final thought, she says: “I believe that it is these little positive steps in our circles - both personal and professional that amplify to make a bigger positive difference. Through engaging diverse groups of people for a common goal of researching in the field of forgiveness (an area essential to work on), Dr. Toussaint’s lab greatly contributes to making the world better than what it is today."


Grant Sparstad was a member of the lab for three semesters, from 2018 to 2019. During that time, he mainly focused on forgiveness and resilience. Grant collaborated with other lab members on a qualitative study of forgiveness, where they looked at participant responses to the story of Gill Hicks, a survivor of the 2005 terrorist attack in London. In addition, Grant enjoyed helping code other lab projects and participating in various events. His advice to future students, even if they are unsure about doing research, is: "look for opportunities to learn and develop research skills through lab projects. Dr. Toussaint once mentioned to us that the skills you are able to practice when working on a project are more important than the topic, and I really found that to be motivating. The experience I have with qualitative analysis has been a conversation starter with graduate school professors and will be influential with future research I take part in." Grant is now pursuing his master's degree in school psychology at the University of Northern Iowa.


Emily Green was a member of the lab for five semesters, from 2016-2018. While working within the lab, Emily primarily focused on analyzing statistical relationships between cognitive decline, forgiveness, and hostility within the Americans’ Changing Lives longitudinal database. Other areas of research included post-traumatic stress symptoms and meaning of life within data from Palestine, Haiti, and Armenia. Her advice to those interested in research: “The best way to learn research is by doing it! While keeping an open mind, gain as diverse of a research experience as possible. You will be able to hone in on your developed interests and preferred techniques so you can begin to concoct your own experiments.” Having just published her second piece of literature within the LIMBS lab, she is continuing on the path of research in St. Paul as a Clinical Research Coordinator in dementia, stroke, and Parkinson’s trials within HealthPartners.

Jillian Hazlett was a member of the lab for six semesters, from 2015 to 2018.  During that time, Jillian worked with data from Haiti, Palestine, and Puerto Rico, examining statistical relationships between post-traumatic stress symptoms, forgiveness, gender, and meaning in life.  To students interested in pursuing research, Jillian says, “Go for it!  Luther’s research labs provide great insight into the field of psychology, building your data analysis skills, resume, and relationships with professors and classmates.  Don’t hesitate to ask your profs about their research, to find a lab that interests you.”  Jillian is now pursuing her master’s degree in occupational therapy at the University of Illinois at Chicago (Class of 2020).  Jillian continues to use skills she gained through research at Luther in her graduate education, and knows they will serve her well throughout her career.

Kelly Kennedy was a member of the lab for seven semesters, from 2015-2018. During her time in the lab, Kelly’s primary research focus included trauma symptomology, chronic pain, cognitive decline, and forgiveness. She enjoyed working on a variety of projects and acted as lab coordinator for six semesters. She also traveled to regional, national, and international conferences around the country to present research conducted in the lab. Her advice to those interested in research would be, “take the initiative! Luther is a place that you can find the support to pursue your passions and interests, something that is much more difficult to do in the ‘real world’. If you’re at all interested, ask professors about their current research and see if you can sit in on a meeting or hear about possible projects. I approached Dr. Toussaint about possible research opportunities my freshmen year and I still am amazed at how many places I was able to go, how many amazing people I was able to meet, and how much passion I found for the field of psychology – all in one research lab experience.” Kelly is now pursuing her master’s degree in counseling psychology at St. Thomas in Minneapolis, MN.


Meredith Bruster was a member of the lab for five semesters from 2014 to 2017. While involved in the lab, Meredith focused primarily on measuring mental health care in Dakar, Senegal. Within the umbrella of mental health, Meredith studied the impact of spirituality, forgiveness, meaning in life on mental health. Her advice to future students interested in research is: “Connect with professors early in your academic career and follow your passions. The more invested and passionate you are about a topic, the more energized and committed you will be to your project. Luther faculty advisors like Professor Toussaint want to support students who are motivated, curious and passionate. My passion for mental health and language learning brought me to Senegal. With help from faculty advisors and the lab, I was able to develop a mix-methods study which later became my senior project. The possibilities are endless, so dream big! Then seek guidance, collaborate with others, ask questions and work hard to make your research dreams a reality.”

Veronica Seher was a member of the lab for two semesters from 2016-2017. She worked with trauma and forgiveness data from Haiti; conducted a forgiveness, meditation, and aromatherapy study; and worked with the Northeast Iowa Food and Fitness Initiative on their BMI project. She presented at several conferences during that time. Her advice to students who want to pursue careers in research: “When in school, take whatever opportunities you can…it looks great on your resume and is excellent for building experience. I didn’t discover my interest in research until my senior year, and really dove in once I found it. That experience helped me out a lot once I graduated. When you graduate, apply for any job you can find, even if you think you’re not qualified, and don’t get discouraged.  Something will open up, it just might take time.” Veronica is now a Clinical Research Coordinator at the Medical College of Wisconsin, working at Children’s Hospital of Wisconsin in Pediatric Hematology/Oncology/BMT on Leukemia/Lymphoma trials.


Alex Hein was a member of the lab from September 2013-May 2016. During her time in the lab, Alex worked on multiple projects examining the relationships between trauma, meaning in life and forgiveness in various countries including Haiti, Rwanda, Burundi, Armenia, Kenya, and regions in the Middle East. Alex's advice for future Luther students who are interested in research is: "Start talking with professors and get involved as soon as you can! Also, advocate for your interests and what's important to you because the many hours you spend in the lab will not seem like work when you're working on what makes you excited about psychology!" Alex gained substantial experience in giving professional presentations as well as analytical thinking and academic writing thanks to her time spent in the lab. She truly believes that participating in the lab helped give her skills both on and off her resume that set her apart to pursue her graduate school dreams. Alex is now a graduate student pursuing her Master's degree in Occupational Therapy at St. Catherine University in St. Paul, MN.

Kristy Housholder was part of the lab for 5 semesters from 2014-2016. While involved in the lab, Kristy’s biggest undertaking focused on the Northeast Iowa Food and Fitness Initiative school body mass index project. Other areas of research for Kristy during her time at Luther included forgiveness, aging, and quality of life. Her advice for those interested in psychology and research: “Soak up every opportunity that you possibly can in the research lab! Working in the research lab will provide you with opportunities that will set your resume apart when fighting for competitive positions. I feel the knowledge and experience gained while working in Dr. Toussaint’s lab at Luther is invaluable to me as a current graduate student and has provided me with a valuable skillset. Luther students are notoriously known for wanting to help people and make the world a better place. What better way to do that than through creative and innovative research that helps people understand the world in ways that improves the quality of their everyday life?” Kristy is a graduate student at the Medical University of South Carolina in the master’s of science in occupational therapy program in Charleston, South Carolina. 


Anuradha Anantharaman (Anu) was part of the lab for 7 semesters from 2012-2015. She was involved in a number of research projects studying various topics like prayer, meditation, social exclusion, suicidality, shame, guilt, diversity, affect, and forgiveness. Anu gained experience in the lab with SPSS, analyzing data, presenting research, mentoring, team-building, and public speaking. Presenting at conferences gave her the chance to meet other students and faculty and learn from their research. Her advice to future students interested in research is, "Approach professors early on during your time at Luther to get involved in research even if the topic may not be exactly what you want to study in the future. This will give you an opportunity to learn the essential skills in research that will be useful across any discipline." Anu is a doctoral student in the program in Industrial Organizational Psychology at Pennsylvania State University. 

Logan Kochendorfer was part of the lab for seven semesters from 2012-2015. Interested in a variety of research topics, Logan contributed to and organized projects related to trauma, suicidality, interpersonal and intrapersonal forgiveness, prayer, meditation, and motivation, to name a few. Logan presented these projects at several professional conferences where she gained experience presenting, networking, and learning from some of the most renowned researchers in the country.  Her time in the lab also taught her a variety of important skills such as team coordination, mentorship, and leadership, as well as how to tame the "beast that is SPSS" and put it to good use in data entry, coding and analysis. Her advice for anyone interested in psychology and research? “Getting involved in one or more of the research labs at Luther is one of the best things you can possibly do for your future. It teaches you important technical and practical knowledge, challenges you to learn from unexpected results rather than be disappointed by them, and allows you to discover a passion for contributing to science and humanity that you may not have known you had. Not to mention that its great for your resume and you get to know some pretty awesome students and professors along the way!” Logan is a doctoral student at Kent State University in Experimental Psychology.


Leah (Zahren) Gates was a member of the lab for five semesters in 2010-2012 and 2014. During that time, Leah’s projects with Dr. Toussaint focused on emotive writing and its positive physiologic impact. She also co-lead studies on loving-kindness meditation in collaboration with Grinnell College, and received a McElroy grant to study the effects of acetaminophen on psychological pain reduction. The highlight of Leah’s time in the lab was working with Dr. Toussaint at Stanford University in California helping train leaders from Rwanda on healing and forgiveness post-genocide. She particularly enjoyed getting to snap a picture with Dr. Toussaint in one of her most admired researchers, Dr. Carol Dweck! Her advice to those interested in research would be to be passionate! The ability to gather, study, and critically analyze information has limitless applications in today’s world. Leah currently works as a nurse and performs statistical analyses that guide treatment plans for non-verbal autistic children. In her free time, she does freelance healthcare writing with a focus on mental health advocacy. She would not trade her work with Dr. Toussaint for the world. It has literally enabled her to do what she is passionate about today.  

Christina Scharmer was a member of the lab for 6 semesters from 2011-2014. She was primarily involved in a research project investigating the impact of forgiveness on the relationship between suicidality and suicide risk factors (e.g., depression, shame, and guilt). While in the lab, Christina gained experience analyzing and presenting psychological data. Christina currently works on a research project in the clinical psychology department at the University of Minnesota. She also works with individuals with eating disorders at the Emily Program in St. Paul, Minnesota.


Emily Banitt was part of the lab for 3 semesters from 2012-2013. She was involved in a number of research projects, but her main focus was social exclusion. Emily and Tyler Funke ('13) replicated research by excluding participants from a group discussion using confederates and then measured belongingness, self-esteem, and forgiveness. This research was presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association spring conference in Chicago, IL. Emily gained experience with research methods, analysis, and presenting research, and she became a lab mentor. All of these were useful skills in her continued graduate education. Her advice to future students, especially if they are interested in going on to graduate school is to, "Find research you enjoy doing and find professors you enjoy working with early. As you start working in the lab more and more, you can put your own twist on the research to make it yours." Emily just completed her Masters degree in Clinical Psychology from the University of Northern Iowa. She accepted a position as a Mental Heath Therapist in Newton, IA where she will be working with adults, adolescents, and children in an outpatient setting. She is excited to also work towards licensure.


Justin Marschall was part of the lab for five semesters from 2010-12. He primarily focused on the relationships among forgiveness, religion/spirituality, and health and had a hand in no less than 17 research projects during his time in the lab. Several of these projects were presented as posters at national conferences, such, including: Society for Behavioral Medicine; Society for Spirituality, Theology, and Health; and Midwestern Psychological Association. Justin and I also collaborated on two peer reviewed papers that were published. He was accepted into a social psychology Ph. D. program at Iowa State University where he continues to research health and well-being. On how to be successful in the lab, Justin says, "Get involved! Don't wait for an invitation to start writing a manuscript or develop an idea for a new study—just do it!" Kaela Stuart was part of the lab for five semesters from 2010-2012. Kaela is currently a graduate student at Kent State University studying child clinical psychology. Kaela was involved in multiple projects in the lab and reports receiving "invaluable experience in lab work, organization, and research presentation." Kaela spent a good deal of her time coordinating the lab and mentoring younger students. The primary focus of the research Kaela was involved in was forgiveness and health research which she observes "is surprisingly applicable to many aspects of life." Kaela's advice to students interested in psychology is to, "work with Dr. Toussaint at some point during your undergraduate years. His lab gives you a chance to explore all the aspects of psychology you will need if you want to go on to graduate school of any sort."


Mitch Zoelzer was part of the lab from 2009-10. He worked on a variety of projects. First, in January of 2009 we analyzed the effects of stress on health measures such as blood pressure, heart rate, and amount of cortisol in participants' saliva. We found that unforgiveness was associated with increased cardiovascular and neuro-endocrine arousal. These findings were presented at the Mid-Year Research Conference on Religion and Spirituality in Baltimore, MD. Secondly, from September 2009 to May 2010 we worked on a campus-wide forgiveness intervention. This experiment included a psycho-educational project that tested the effectiveness of various forgiveness intervention techniques, as well as, a campus-wide forgiveness blitz that examined the effectiveness of communal forgiveness programming. The blitz was effective at bettering students' relationships with parents and teachers, especially among those who were low in initial religious commitment. These results were presented at the Luther College Research Symposium in May 2010. The data from the psycho-educational portion of the project are still being analyzed. Mitch Zoelzer is currently serving as a Teacher Resident at the MATCH Charter High School in Boston, MA where he is mentoring and tutoring urban youth. This training will prepare him to be a full-time teacher in an at-risk school somewhere in the country for two years following his year in Boston. Mitch is the winner of the 2010 Luther College Jenson Medal for service and achievement. Audrey Seitz was part of the lab from 2008-2010. In 2008, Audrey, along with 2 other alum were involved in a study funded by the Kellogg Foundation titled Safe Routes to School. To determine barriers to daily exercise, walking to school and bicycle use, Audrey and colleagues surveyed 700+ students and parents from the Decorah School District. Data was analyzed and statistical reports were shared at the Luther Research Symposium. Reports were also shared with the Decorah School District, local Safe Routes to School representatives, and the Iowa Department of Public Health. Audrey also participated in data analysis on the Sierra Leone Forgiveness project, completed literature reviews on refugee health and forgiveness, and completed her senior thesis on the importance of primary care and prevention in the healthcare system. Audrey is currently enrolled in the Master of Public Health program at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee with an emphasis on Community Health and Prevention.


Mary Whipple was part of the lab and involved in multiple projects from 2006-09. These projects included assessing the impact of forgiveness and gratitude exercises on satisfaction with life and mood in post-polio patients, investigating religious & spiritual correlates of self-rated health & symptom severity in post-polio patients, and analyzing data from the forgiveness education in Sierra Leone. The results of these studies were presented at several conferences, including the Mid-Year Conference on Religion and Spirituality, in Baltimore, MD, and the Australian Conference on Spirituality and Health, in Adelaide, Australia. I was also instrumental in connecting Mary with Dr. Susan Everson-Rose at the University of Minnesota Medical School, which led to a summer research internship and a publication in the medical journal, Stroke. Mary is now working at Mayo Clinic in Rochester, MN, as a research study coordinator in the Fibromyalgia and Chronic Fatigue Clinic. Here, she has been coordinating a study with Dr. Ann Vincent and me on the effect of patient education on forgiveness, anger, and mood in individuals with fibromyalgia, a chronic muscle pain disorder. Mary is also working with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention on a study on the epidemiology of chronic fatigue syndrome. See more about Mary Whipple in the Luther Alumni Magazine. Amy Schneider-Webb was part of the lab and participated in several public-health projects from 2007-09 and did an internship at the Iowa Department of Public Health. Here is a recent update from Amy: 

I feel that public health is one of those things that is all around us but no one really notices! I had honestly never really heard of public health until the summer before my senior year at Luther when I got an internship with the Iowa Department of Public Health. After a summer of gathering data about the health status of five counties in Northeast Iowa I was hooked! Public health seemed like a really good fit with my interests of psychology, sociology, and health. I wanted to help people be healthier and public health let me do that at a population level. 

I went Emory for a masters in public health with a program focus of behavioral science and health education. I felt that the behavioral science and health education program would be a great transition from my psychology major at Luther. The program was great! Another great part of grad school at Emory was the availability of super cool work study/internship experiences. Emory happened to be right across the street from the main location of the CDC. I was able to get a work study position at CDC within the Division of Healthcare Quality Promotion. I was hired to be a research assistant to a Behavioral Scientist in the division. It was a great fit and the research skills I learned at Luther really came in handy! I ended up having that position for both years at Emory. I was involved in developing surveys and focus group scripts for the research that my supervisor conducted. I entered data and learned how to analyze it both qualitatively and quantitatively. I was involved in developing the manuscripts for the projects I worked on and ended up being on four published journal articles in two years! One of which was my master's thesis which I was the lead author on. :)

After graduation I was hired on as a full time Public Health Analyst in the same division. I moved from working in the Prevention and Response Branch to the Surveillance Branch so my duties changed from research oriented to more program development and project management. Within the Surveillance Branch we run the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN). Its the largest healthcare surveillance system in the US. Healthcare facilities of all types enter data into NHSN for federal and state mandates as well as internal infection control. Our system provides standardized definitions for healthcare associated infections (HAIs) as well as a standardized system to enter, analyze, and compare the data to national metrics.

One of my main projects is the coordination of early adoption for one of our newer modules within NHSN: Antimicrobial Use. To make a long story short, antimicrobial use is something that's extremely important for healthcare facilities to monitor. Using antimicrobials inappropriately can cause harm to patients and increase the the likelihood of pathogen resistance to our most common drugs. Because the development of new antimicrobials has slowed down in the recent years, when pathogens become resistant, treating infections becomes much more complicated and costly. What NHSN does is allow facilities to enter their usage data to examine trends and evaluate appropriate usage of antimicrobials within their facility. Once we have enough facilities entering data in NHSN, we'll be able to provide national benchmarks so facilities will be able to compare their usage with others of similar size and patient population. My job has been to coordinate the early adoption of this module by working with healthcare software vendors, state health departments, and pharmacists to help them understand our protocol for data submission, the metrics we're using to calculate usage rates, how to submit the data into our system and how to interpret and analyze it. It's been a challenging project at times as each group involved has a different 'language.' I've learned a lot about how software vendors develop their product and roll it out to their customers. I developed a validation protocol that both vendors and pharmacists can understand and use to validate their data. I composed training materials and provided user support for pharmacists learning the system. 

My other duties consist of NHSN user support, user communication, user training, development and maintenance of data collection forms, attending meetings, taking and disseminating notes, and working with outside partners such as the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services on the public reporting of healthcare associated infection data. Overall, I really enjoy my job. Working in the federal government provides me with the ability to affect the quality of healthcare for the entire US population. While I don't actually work directly with patients in a hospital, I help to develop and maintain a system that allows physicians to provide better care. 

Of course there are tons of other opportunities for careers in public health. There are the more academic focused positions at universities and academic medical centers that center around conducting research and publishing the results. There are positions that work directly with the 'end-user' such as counseling and providing health education at HIV clinics or homeless shelters. There are positions that work globally with initiatives like polio and malaria eradication in Africa. You could work for government agencies at the federal, state, county, or city level. There are non-profit agencies and foundations such as The Gates Foundation or there are corporate positions at for-profit healthcare facilities or healthcare software vendors. Basically, there are tons and tons of opportunities for careers in public health; so much so that at times it can be overwhelming trying to narrow them down. Your best bet is to find a topic or a population that interests you such as school age children or refugees, obesity or drug/alcohol abuse and look for opportunities that focus around those areas. Also, if you don't want to go to grad school, that's totally fine. There are a lot of great internships and other positions for recent college grads. Any experience you get in public health will help you get to where you want to go. 

I think that's all I have for now. Please let me know if you have any questions or would like me to elaborate on what I do currently or my journey in public health thus far. I'd be more than happy to help in any way that I can. :)


Karl Boleen was part of the lab from 2007-08. He worked on a project examining the effects of perceived stress on the forgiveness-mental health relationship, especially focused on the workplace. We found forgiveness and mental health were positively correlated and largely mediated by perceived stress. The results were presented at the senior honors project day at Luther College. Currently, Karl is working on an SAP implementation as a technology consultant for Accenture in Minneapolis, MN. Amy (Christenson) Cahill was part of the lab from 2006-08. She worked on a project examining differences in dispositional forgiveness across cultures and the connections between forgiveness and well-being outcomes. Contrary to previous research, we found that individualistic cultures exhibit higher levels of forgiveness than collectivistic cultures. These findings were presented at the 2008 Mid-Year Conference on Religion and Spirituality. Amy completed a M.A. in Human Resources and Industrial Relations at the University of Minnesota in May 2010 and is currently employed as a Human Resource Analyst at Pizza Hut, Inc. in Dallas, Texas. Alyssa Cheadle was part of the lab from 2005-08. She worked on a number of projects examining the relationships between forgiveness and health and religiosity and health, including a 2007 trip to Sierra Leone to investigate forgiveness after the country's civil war. We have presented results of these studies at the Mid-Year Conference on Religion and Spirituality, the Annual Meeting of the Midwest Psychological Association, and the Society for Behavioral Medicine. We have also published peer-reviewed chapters/papers on this work. Alyssa completed a Master of Theological Studies at Harvard in 2010 and is now a doctoral candidate in the Health Psychology program at UCLA.

Sebrinia Madsen was part of the lab during the spring of 2008. She worked on a project examining forgiveness, victimization by bullying, and mental health in middle school students in Decorah, Iowa. We found that higher levels of victimization by bullying were connected to higher levels of negative psychological symptoms, more forgiving students and lower levels of negative psychological symptoms, and being victimized by bullying was associated with lower levels of forgiveness. The findings of this study were presented to the teachers and staff of Decorah Middle School. Sebrinia currently resides in Denver, Colorado and works for the University of Colorado Denver as a graduate assistant for their Upward Bound Program. She graduated from the University of Colorado Denver School of Education in Spring of 2011 with a Master's in Counseling, with a School Counseling emphasis, from the Counseling Psychology and Counselor Education Program. Joel Schrock was part of the lab from 2006-08. He was involved in a project examining the physiological responses to various stress relaxation techniques. Specifically, various relaxation techniques (progressive muscle relaxation, breathing exercises, or imagery) have differential efficacy when measured by self-reported relaxation or physiological measurements (skin conductance or blood pressure). These findings were presented at the annual Midwestern Psychological Association meeting in Chicago, IL. Joel is currently a pharmacology graduate student at Weill Cornell Graduate School of Medical Sciences in New York, NY. He is studying the molecular basis of opiate tolerance.


Gavin White first began in the lab in the summer of 2006. The project was a Health Risk Assessment (HRA) of faculty and staff at Luther College. HRA data were used by Luther's Health Care Committee to help guide decision making. Gavin again worked with the lab in the fall of 2006, this time on his senior project. The main purpose of his senior project was to compare and contrast differences in stress between student athletes and non-student athletes. The findings were presented to the faculty and staff of the health department at Luther College for Gavin's senior presentation. Gavin currently is living in Northeast Ohio with his fiance and has been working in banking. Sarah Warner was part of the lab from 2006-07. She worked on a project examining forgiveness, interpersonal stress, productivity, and mental and physical health. Employees from a local company participated in this research. Forgiveness was consistently associated with improved productivity and health outcomes. However, this association was mediated by interpersonal stress. That is, forgiveness decreased interpersonal stress, which in turn, improved productivity and health. This study was presented at the 1st Applied Positive Psychology Conference at the University of Warwick in the United Kingdom. Sarah now works as a Program Coordinator for a company that runs group homes for adults with developmental disabilities in the Twin Cities.


Laurie Meinholz was part of the lab during the summer of 2006. She worked on a research project examining community effects of binge drinking. Residents of the Decorah community were asked about their perceptions of contributors to and effects of binge drinking at Luther College. Results of the community survey were used to guide discussions of a campus-community alcohol collaborative working toward binge drinking education and prevention. Laurie is attending Palmer College of Chiropractic in Davenport, IA pursuing a Doctor of Chiropractic degree. Kelly Moore was part of the lab from 2005-06. She worked on a project examining mastery and self-reported and physiological indicators of stress relaxation. We found that an imagery exercise was most effective for individuals demonstrating high mastery, a progressive muscle relaxation exercise was most effective for participants low in mastery, and that a breathing exercise was ineffective in eliciting stress relaxation for both mastery groups. These findings were presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association Conference in May, 2007. Currently, Kelly Moore is completing a Ph.D. in Clinical Psychology at Marquette University.


T.C. Mack was part of the lab from 2004-06. He completed a project investigating forgiveness, interpersonal stress, and health. Results showed that forgiveness was associated with better mental and physical health, but interpersonal stress was an important mediator/moderator. The findings provided additional support for the theoretical and conceptual work of Worthington et al. (2001) and Toussaint and Webb (2005). This work was presented at the Midwestern Psychological Association annual conference in 2006. We also completed a project that explored the dimensional structure of the Interpersonal Stress Scale (Hashimoto, 1997). Our findings suggested that a one-factor solution best fit the data. This work was presented at the 2006 Association for Psychological Science conference. Currently, T.C. is pursuing his doctorate in Clinical Developmental Psychology at Bryn Mawr College and conducts research in the area of mathematics learning disabilities.