• Ph.D., History, University of Iowa, 1999
    Dissertation: Imagining delay: ‘Limited liability’ and the binding of legal uncertainty in nineteenth-century Britain.
  • M.A., Economics, University of Iowa, 1989
    Thesis: “General limited liability in Britain: why 1856?”
  • J.D., Washington University School of Law, St. Louis, Missouri, 1983
  • B.A., Economics and Management, Luther College, 1980