Guy Nave: Disrespecting The Green Book

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I watched the movie, Green Book, recently.

I usually avoid feel-good movies that minimize and/or trivialize black suffering. I watched this movie, however, because I wanted to support the efforts of the Luther College Student Activities Council and Black Student Union. I’m a faculty member at Luther College, and these two organizations co-sponsored a showing of the film followed by a discussion.

During the discussion, I expressed my disappointment and frustration with the film. I stated that there was so much the film could have but failed to explore with regards to racism.

The film tells the story of an unlikely but apparent friendship between the relatively unknown musical prodigy, composer, and virtuoso pianist, Donald Shirley, and Tony Vallelonga, a working-class Italian-American from the Bronx who was hired to chauffeur Shirley on a 1962 tour of the Jim Crow South.

The film’s approach to race and racism (especially during the 1960s) is naive, simplistic, and ill-informed. While there were multiple opportunities to engage in a more complex and nuanced examination of race, the film failed at virtually every turn.

In response to my critique, one person stated that there simply was not enough time to do everything. This, of course, is true. Movies cannot explore everything. Producers, directors, and screenplay writers have to make decisions regarding what they want to prioritize. The film’s failure, however, to engage in a more complex and nuanced examination of race and racism was not the result of a lack of time; it was the result of a lack of priority.

The film did not explore the damaging and pernicious effects of institutionalized racism, the complex and complicated life of Donald Shirley, nor the importance of a traveler’s guide known as The Green Book because none of these issues were a priority. They were not the film’s focus.

The focus of the film was on telling the story of the transformation of a white man from a racist bigot to a heroic white savior. Foregrounding this transformation came at the expense of reducing to a supporting role the extraordinarily complex, complicated, and amazing life of Donald Shirley. It also came at the expense of trivializing the importance for black people of the travel guide after which the film is named.

While the bulk of the film takes place within the context of Shirley’s tour of the Jim Crow South, the actual reason for the tour contributes little to the film’s storyline. The film makes a passing reference to the brutal onstage assault against Nat King Cole in Birmingham, Alabama six years earlier. King swore he would never return to the segregated South. Shirley undertook his tour of whites-only theaters and parlor venues out of civic obligation—and stubbornness. The tour represented Shirley’s response to and protest against structural Jim Crow racism.

While Green Book could have been an amazing film committed to highlighting the story of Donald Shirley and Tony Vallelonga confronting the pernicious effects of structural racism, instead it marked an unwelcome return of the “cute racism movie.”

The cute racism movie is a genre of film that offers predominantly white audiences the comforting sense that structural racism is a thing of the past and personal racism can be eradicated by black and white people getting to know one another and realizing that “we’re all the same.”

While I have always found this tone-deaf approach to racism appalling, what makes Green Book even more egregious is that it takes its title from a travel guide that was an indispensable resource designed for helping black people navigate and survive in a violently racist and segregated nation and it never explores the significance of that resource.

In the era of Jim Crow segregation, institutionalized racism presented serious dangers for black travelers. For black travelers, The Green Book was a tool of survival. It was written and published by a retired African American postal carrier named Victor Green.

The first edition was published in 1936. The introduction of the 1948 edition of the book ended,

"There will be a day sometime in the near future when this guide will not have to be published. That is when we as a race will have equal opportunities and privileges in the United States. It will be a great day for us to suspend this publication for then we can go wherever we please, and without embarrassment."

The final edition was published in 1966. For thirty years The Green Book provided a safety net for black travelers warning them of sundown towns and racially hostile establishments to avoid.

While the book was no longer published after 1966, the historic events of 1968 and the continued existence of racial disparities today reveal that Black Americans as a people still do not “have equal opportunities and privileges in the United States.” The film, of course, has no interest in speaking to this reality.

The movie could have easily told its simplistic story of racial friendship between Tony and Donald and the transformation of Tony from bigot to savior without trivializing one of the most important resources committed to protecting traveling black people from white terrorism.

In their first “The Green Book” location stopan apparently run-down Carver Courts MotelTony responds to The Green Book entry describing the place as offering the comforts of home by saying, this place “looks like my ass.”

It is obvious that the movie is not concerned with accurately depicting The Green Book nor seriously exploring the complex and painful realities of racism in America during the brutally violent segregated Jim Crow period. The filmmakers, therefore, should have refrained from using Green Book as the title of a film that utterly disrespects the valuable contributions of The Green Book.

This movie’s disregard and blatant trivialization of The Green Book in order to tell a cute racism story focused on the transformation of a white racist is an insult to black people in America who were forced to rely on The Green Book and on their own ingenuity, resilience and courage in order to survive in the face of irrational yet fiercely defended racial bigotry and terrorism.

When I communicated with my mother after watching the film, she reminded me of stories about her parents packing enough food and drinks for their entire trips. Since there were no rest areas they could use, her father would occasionally pull off to the side of the road when they drove during the night in order to take a nap. As a child, my mom was always too scared to sleep, and she was always glad when her father would wake up and start driving again.

When she and her siblings had to go to the restroom, they would pull over to the side of the road and my grandmother would open the front and back doors on the passenger side to protect their privacy while they did what they had to do on the side of the road. They were unable to stop at most service stations to use the so-called “public” restrooms.

My mom told me that at that time, she never knew why they had to travel that way. She thought it was normal and the way all people traveled. She only realized as she got older that it was the way black people were forced to travel in America. It was part of what “driving while black” meant in Jim Crow America. While the hardships of “driving while black” are slightly different today, they are no less dangerous.

While it is often said, “art imitates life,” I hope Green Book’s selection as the Academy Award’s 2019 Best Picture does not mean most Americans have bought into the naive and ill-informed view that structural racism is a thing of the past and that building a genuinely antiracist society can be achieved simply by becoming friends with one person of another race. This was not the case in 1962 and it is certainly not the case today.

Guy Nave

Guy Nave

Guy Nave, professor of religion, has been part of the Religion Department faculty since 2001, focusing on the topics of Christianity, biblical studies, religion and social justice, the social construction of religious meaning, and race-religion-and-politics. Professor Nave is currently researching the power, politics and meaning behind the rhetoric of "change," as well as the role of Christianity in bringing about social "change." In addition to writing for Luther College's Ideas and Creations blog, Nave is the founder of the online social media platform Clamoring for Change and is a guest contributor to a number of online sites, including Sojourners Commentary blog series.

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  • March 27 2019 at 3:00 pm
    Shari Lillestolen

    Thank you so much for putting into print the ideas expressing my sadness after this movie! As an older white woman I am horrified at the "cute" take on racial injustices that occurred in my lifetime! We wrongly thought the 1960’s had remedied some of the attitudes of Americans. Guess not. I am sorry when I hear from peers that they thought this movie was good, sweet, funny.......I felt a little sick that I had paid to see it.

    I hope your blog will reach our clergy and charge them to preach social justice again! Thank you.

  • March 27 2019 at 5:28 pm
    Guy Nave

    Thanks, Shari, for you open and honest response. I appreciate your willingness to initiate what I hope can be meaningful (although difficult) conversation here.

  • March 28 2019 at 7:03 am
    Rev. Dr. Russell Meyer

    While a longer response could be written, I simply wish to concur without reserve for your analysis of The Green Book. It captures my viewer response and informs me of why I was left wanting and lamenting after watching the movie.

    Thank you, Professor Nave.

  • March 29 2019 at 2:14 pm
    Guy D. Nave

    Thanks, Rev. Dr. Russell Meyer. I think many were left wanting and lamenting after watching the movie. I hope this will not be the same feeling produced by the soon to be released movie, "The Best of Enemies."

  • March 29 2019 at 6:36 pm
    Peter Hernes

    I find it difficult and frustrating to find well-balanced perspectives. It's so easy for white authors to make the issue all about themselves (for example, the creepy "Waking up White"). However, it's also so easy to be dismissive of everything a white person says/writes/thinks because they are not a person of color and don't experience the racism directly. And so then I look for perspectives from non-white authors, but that's still only one part of the story.  Ultimately, I, as a white person, cannot expect for a person of color to do my speaking for me, I have to find my own voice, uncover the truth for myself so that I can do my part constructively.

    I think a movie like Green Book requires two viewings. Individual transformations like Tony's are an important piece and I think it's okay to feel good at watching that transformation, but then the second viewing needs to be critical of the larger societal piece so that we can see everything that you have pointed out.  After reading your story about your mom having to go to the bathroom at the side of the road, it's a bit ironic that in the movie, it was Tony who stopped for himself.

    Teaching at UCDavis is an interesting experience, as white students are the minority. In fact, only about 15% of the student population is white male. It makes for richer conversations. I've been incorporating Joseph Barndt's "Understanding and Dismantling Racism" into some of my seminar courses that I teach every quarter. I'd be happy see other resources that you could recommend. I don't find the reviewer ratings on Amazon to be particularly helpful.



  • April 2 2019 at 2:13 pm
    Guy D. Nave


    Thanks for your response and your work at UCDavis. As a Professor of Hydrology and Aqueous Chemist, what are the seminar courses that you teach in which you incorporate Joseph Barndt's Understanding and Dismantling Racism. I would LOVE to hear more about those courses.

    Three books that I'm currently reading and am finding insightful are:

    1. So You Want to Talk about Race by Ijeoma Oluo

    2. I'm Still Here: Black Dignity in a World Made for Whiteness by Austin Channing Brown

    3. The Sin of White Supremacy by Jeannine Hill Fletcher


    With regards to anti-racism work, I strongly recommend the 2017 National Book Award winner, Stamped from the Beginning, by Ibram X. Kendi. Kendi also provides a helpful reading list here ( Lastly, the following is a link to a collaborative project between The Guardian and American University’s Antiracist Research and Policy Center

    I hope you find these resources helpful. Thanks again.

  • April 4 2019 at 11:58 pm
    Cassandra Shepard

    Thank you, professor, for sharing your honest feelings about this movie. It was great to read your meaningful thoughts.

    Cassandra Shepard

  • April 5 2019 at 9:38 am
    Guy D. Nave

    Thanks, Cassandra, for taking the time to read my blog and to share your response. I appreciate your comments.

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