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  • Ph.D., English, University of Iowa, 1991
    Dissertation: "The Web of Influences on Walt Whitman's Representation of African-Americans in the 1855 Leaves of Grass"
  • M.A., English, University of Iowa, 1989
  • M.A., Lutheran School of Theology at Chicago, 1990
  • Christ Seminary, Seminex, St. Louis, Missouri, 1981-1983
  • B.A., Honors English, University of Oregon, 1980